20 Feb But the bright image of the great Kobzar is immortal, like the people who gave birth to him.
But the bright image of the great Kobzar is immortal, like the people who gave birth to him.
In the glorious constellation of immortal classics of literature, the genius singer of the Ukrainian people rightly stands in line with such titans of thought and word as Homer and Shakespeare, Pushkin and Tolstoy, Goethe and Byron, Schiller and Heine, Balzac and Hugo, Mickiewicz and Burns, Rustaveli Nizami, whose artistic heritage has become the property of all advanced humanity. The passion of patriotic revival in the work of Taras Shevchenko The breadth of political thinking, the struggle against social injustice and slavery, against any violence against human souls raised Taras Shevchenko to the top of the spokesman of the Ukrainian nation. Shevchenko’s word, his poetic language ignited the hearts of millions with patriotic fire. The poet wrapped the wing of glory in Ukrainian history. As J. Grabovych put it, “… he is a singer and a prophet who transmitted the voice of his people, he is the spiritual father of the revival of the Ukrainian nation.” Thanks to his work, Ukrainian literature, imbued with humanistic ideas, embarked on a broad international path of historical progress and brought the whole nation out of oblivion. Going side by side with other peoples is a historical need of every nation and an indispensable condition for real progress in its spiritual creativity. He saw good and evil on the land of his childhood, heaven and hell, and felt his unity with Ukraine, with its people. All this became part of himself. He really came out of the people, lived with the people, with all his thoughts and feelings was strongly and inextricably linked with him. And in his songs-thoughts this love for Ukraine and Ukrainians, which is inseparable from Kobzar’s poetry, swells; there is no Shevchenko without her. The poet calls all the sufferers and fighters brothers and sisters with whom he is united by his mother-Ukraine. These people live in his heart, live in his works. These are his mother, who was “still young and buried in need and work”, and his father, who “could not stand the bad fate – he died in serfdom” and his brothers, whose “foreheads were shaved” and sisters who spent their lives in employment and poverty, and his beloved Oksanochka, who suffered the fate of Catherine. But the poet and his mother, who “stung wheat in the serfdom” and did not go on dreaming about freedom, and the unfortunate rebellious Marina, and Perebendya, with his songs-thoughts about the fate of Ukraine, and the mercenary Anna, who found advice for her grief in human kindness. But the great Kobzar was alien to the national limitations of Ukrainian gentlemen such as the “zealous patriot” Peter Skoropadsky (“in the retinue he walks among the gentlemen and drinks vodka with the men, and thinks freely in the tavern”), or the characters of the poem “Both dead and alive …” The poet knew Ukrainians well, who loved “their brother’s skin, not their soul”. he showed the gallery of such gentlemen in the introduction to the poem “Dream” and in almost all his other works. Taras Shevchenko was the enemy of any limitation, believing that the achievements of each national culture are the achievement of all mankind. That is why, dreaming of a free Ukraine, where “in the villages the merry ones” will have “merry people” where “there will be no enemy of the enemy, there will be a son and a mother, and there will be people on earth “. The poet imagined a “free, new family” of nations, where nature would come to life and people would come to life, where there would be no oppression, and freedom and brotherhood would prevail. Even during his lifetime, the authority of Shevchenko’s speech was high not only because of its political significance, but also because deprived of the right to its own history and national identity, the Ukrainian people perceived the works of their poet not only as beautiful writing but also as a factor in cultural life. in Ukraine. Belarusian writer M. Bogdanovich wrote in an article written to mark the centenary of the poet’s birth: “… This is a writer who was destined to become a huge role in becoming a symbol of cultural value of the whole nation, the embodiment of its entire spiritual essence. ” In one of his letters at the end of his life (1859) T. Shevchenko wrote: “I am the flesh and spirit of the son and brother of our untalented people …”. And he himself, with his work, brought his people to the number of extraordinary talents and talents. Taras Shevchenko is a symbol of honesty, truth and fearlessness, great love for people. All the works of the great Kobzar are warmed by a passionate love for the Motherland, imbued with a sacred hatred for the enemies and oppressors of the people. His thoughts, his songs, his fiery anger, his struggle for the bright destiny of the working people were the thoughts, songs, anger and struggle of millions. All nations love Shevchenko’s poetry. The poet, who gave all his strength to the struggle for the liberation of his native Ukraine from social and national oppression, expressed the aspirations and hopes of all peoples, all progressive people of the world. More than a hundred years have passed since the noble, courageous heart of the genius poet-revolutionary Taras Shevchenko stopped beating. But the bright image of the great Kobzar is immortal, like the people who gave birth to him. The eternally imperishable work of the genius son of Ukraine is alive with the breath of life, the beating of a hot human heart. The immortal mighty power of his talent, the insight and depth of his thought, the courage and tenderness of his lyrics, the sharpness and passion of his words, the courage and song of his poems, his selfless love for his homeland, for his people … References:
Babishkin O. Shevchenko’s glory. – K., 1989; Bogdanovich N. Selected works. – M., 1983. – S. 283; Bolshakov L. The story of eternal life. – K., 1990; Vashchenko VS Epithets of Taras Shevchenko’s poetic language: Dictionary-index. – Dnepropetrovsk, 1982; Smilyavska V. Holy fiery word. – K., 1990; Ukrainian word. A textbook of Ukrainian literature and literary criticism of the XX century.: In 3 books. – K., 1994.
Fiction by Andrei Tchaikovsky
Andriy Tchaikovsky entered Ukrainian literature at the end of the 19th century and worked in its field for four decades. His numerous stories and novels were highly praised by Ivan Franko, Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky, and Osip Makovei. Our ideas about the Western Ukrainian literary process of the late XIX – early XX centuries, will be incomplete without understanding his work
Andrei Yakovlevich Tchaikovsky was born on May 15, 1857 in the city of Sambor in the Lviv region in the family of a petty government official. Early orphaned, he lived with his relatives: first in the village of Gordynya, Sambir County, and from 1869 – in Sambor. The future writer came from the so-called walking (petty) gentry, spent his childhood in her environment. Until the middle of the 17th century, this stratum of the population had privileges, and later, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, it had only memories of them. 1 yet she was full of pride for her former rights. Now it differed from the “ordinary” peasants in clothing, certain features of life and a kind of speech. Andrew grew up in a picturesque region on the Dniester, among hard-working and singing people, greedily absorbed fairy tales, legends, stories about narrative writing topics the past, listen to songs and jokes. Impressions of childhood later served him as a writer. His first mentor was his grandmother, with whom he mastered the Polish primer, learned to read and write. He did not go to primary school, he continued his home studies under the tutelage of the teacher of the church school in the village of Hordyni Teodor Prystash. Later, the writer respectfully mentioned him as a smart and kind man. In 1869 Andrew became a student of the Sambir gymnasium. Here he felt how little his knowledge of the Ukrainian language and literature was. Until now, I had the opportunity to read only the prayer book, V. Kovalevsky’s textbook and Yakov Holovatsky’s “Wreath for Polite Children”. Andriy Tchaikovsky entered Ukrainian literature at the end of the 19th century and worked in its field for four decades. His numerous stories and novels were highly praised by Ivan Franko, Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky, and Osip Makovei. Our ideas about the Western Ukrainian literary process of the late XIX – early XX centuries will be incomplete without understanding his work. He enriched Ukrainian literature with works in which he realistically showed the Galician reality, created pictures of life of different segments of the population of the region. Tchaikovsky’s lawyer wrote a number of stories and essays “from the courtroom.” Fruitfully, though with varying degrees of success, he worked in the genre of historical narrative. Andrei Tchaikovsky’s fiction had a wide resonance. His works have been published in Lviv, Kolomyia, Chernivtsi, Stanislav, Ternopil, Kyiv, Kharkiv, Katerynoslav, Vienna, Prague, Krakow, the USA and Canada. In 1877 Tchaikovsky entered the Faculty of Philosophy of Lviv University. Even more needy, difficult days began. Having nothing to pay for training, he abandons philosophy and goes to the army. A year later he returned to the university – now to the Faculty of Law. Here he plunged headlong into student life – he headed the youth organization “Friendly Usurer” and soon became one of the founders of the “Circle of Lawyers”. For some time he managed to improve his financial situation: in 1880 he found a paid job in the cultural and educational public organization “Education”. In 1882, Andrei Tchaikovsky, like thousands of other Ukrainians, was mobilized into the Austrian army and sent to suppress the Herzegovinian-Bosnian liberation movement. Impressions from the picturesque landscapes of Bosnia, from meetings with unconquered locals, reflections on the historical events of that time again inclined to literary work. The result was the book “Memories from before, ten years” which was published in Lviv in 1894, when A. Tchaikovsky was already working as a lawyer in the town of Berezhany in Ternopil region. The realist writer explained to readers: “… I take a thing in the stories as it really is shown. I try to photograph the images I see, and it’s not my fault if that photo shows a face that someone would not want to see when sunflower rays … Just like with people, in my stories I deal with the facts. I do not invent plots in the main essays, I just take them from life, as they happened. “Attentive to every new talent in his native literature, Ivan Franko enthusiastically welcomed Andrei Tchaikovsky’s literary endeavors. In a letter dated March 26, 1895, we read: “Happiness to you in the field of writing! I think that with the broad knowledge of life and language of the people and with the observational talent that you have, you can not help but be lucky! “.